Electrical conductivity of some common solutions

Conductivity of a solution

Conductivity of a solution appears a very simple measurement. Probe goes in, number comes out. Simple? While a number certainly comes out whether that number has any meaning requires slightly more careful handling.

Exaggerated representations of the z and t distributions


To measure the uncertainty associated with a set of results you need to repeat measurements.

The difference between accuracy and precision.

Accuracy and precision

Accuracy: how close to the “true” value you are (e.g. how close to your true weight your bathroom scales weigh you to).

Rejecting data (Outliers)

Your data may not fit your pet idea, or even the generally accepted scientific theory, but that does not they are wrong.

TIC/TOC – measuring carbon

Meausring the carbon content of soils, sediments and rocks is a key measurement in geochemistry and other related sciences.

BET surface area

BET is one of the few methods available for surface area measurement and has the advantage of being able to give a measure of porosity.

Calibration standard preparation using volumetric flasks.

Preparation of calibration standards

Calibration standards are key to the analytical process as they are used to create the calibration curve. Better the calibration standards the better calibration curves and so the better the results.

It’s calibration time!

For most measurements in analytical chemistry some form of calibration curve is required. The better the calibration the more accuracy and precise are the results that you can achieve.

Analysis procedure

Analyse this!

When you run an analysis there is a procedure you need to follow to ensure you get the best data.